The answer to this question has always been relative and dependent upon several factors. Previously, individuals would launch a site, optimize title tags, and be lucky to rank in a few weeks. Unfortunately, you can no longer expect to launch a website today and expect it to rank for competitive search keywords overnight.
The process of ranking takes time. It will be long until your site can perform organically. This is because Google gives ranking priorities to relevant sites with built-up authority.
Generally, expect to rank between six months to a year, which is entirely dependent upon your efforts. You have to strive to earn Google’s trust as an authority in your niche. To do this, invest in top-quality resources. You also need to match or surpass your competition and sites battling to answer the same questions you are answering.
It may take a few months to rank for a local term—for example, local electrician in (_location_). On the other hand, it could take longer than that (up to years) to rank for a generic term—for example, smartphone. Generally, it could also take you up to a year to figure out where a new website should rank. As such, you should expect fluctuations during this period.